According to Brazilian law, indigenous land is the land traditionally occupied by Indians, permanently inhabited and used for its production activities, essential to the preservation of environmental resources necessary for their well-being and its necessary physical and cultural reproduction, according to their uses, customs, and traditions. (Paragraph 1 of Article 231 of the Federal Constitution – CF). According to item XI of Article 20 of the Constitution, “are goods of the Union” and that, by § 4 of art. 231, the lands are “inalienable and unavailable and inalienable rights over them.”
According to the ISA – Instituto Socioambiental, most of the indigenous lands in Brazil suffer an invasion of miners, fishermen, hunters, loggers, and squatters. Others are cut off by roads, railways, power lines or have portions flooded by hydroelectric power plants. Often, the Indians perverse results of what happens even outside of their lands in the regions that surround them: pollution of rivers by pesticides, deforestation, etc..
In Brazil, there are 608 indigenous lands, with a total area of 109,741,229 acres (1,097,412 km2), which represents 13% of the area of the country.
In the Amazon, we find 98.61% of the lands of the country in 422 areas. Altogether there are 108,177,545 acres (20.67% of the Amazon). The remaining 1.39% is distributed between the Northeast, Southeast, South, and state of Mato Grosso do Sul. In estimating the ISA, in Brazil there are 227 indigenous people who number about 600 thousand people (0.2% of the population).