Caatinga

The name “Caatinga” is a Tupi word meaning “white forest” or “white vegetation”. It covers between 700,000 km² and 1,000,000 km²,  over 10% of the Brazil’s territory. The Caatinga is a very dry biome in Brazil. Despite its semi-arid climate, it’s inhabited by about 15 million people. There are little drinkable water sources and harvesting gets difficult because of the irregular rainfall. Droughts occur frequently in Caatinga. The vegetation is very dry and the roots begin to protrude through the surface of the stony soil. They do this in order to absorb water before it is evaporated. All leaves fall off the trees to reduce transpiration, thus lessening the amount of water that is lost in the dry season. During the peak periods of drought the Caatinga’s soil can reach temperatures of up to 60 °C. The drought usually ends in December or January, when the rainy season starts.