Biomes of Brazil

biomesBiomes are climatically and geographically defined areas of ecologically similar climatic conditions such as communities of plants, animals, and soil organisms, and are often referred to as ecosystems. Biomes are defined by factors such as plant structures (such as trees, shrubs, and grasses), leaf types (such as broadleaf and needleleaf), plant spacing (forest, woodland, savanna), and climate. Brazil has its territory occupied by 6 biomes on land.

Amazon Rainforest or Amazônia, which covers an area of 4,196,943 km ² and 49.29% of the country and consists mostly of a tropical forest.  The Amazon is made up of different ecosystems such as forests dense land, seasonal forests , igapó forests, flooded fields, meadows, grasslands, mountain refuges and pioneer formations.

Caatinga, covers 9.92% of the country, occupying an area of 844,453 square kilometers, consists mostly of savannah of very dry areas with low bush.

Cerrado, occupies an area of 2,036,448, representing 23.92% of the country and consists mainly of savannas which integrate the Amazonia and Mata Atlântica.

Atlantic Forest or Mata Atlântica, covers an area of 86,289 square miles and 53.00% of the country and which consists primarily of forest along the coastline that runs from Northeast to South. Atlantic Forest offers a variety of backgrounds, encompassing a broad range of forest ecosystems with structures with floral compositions quite different, following the characteristics of the region where it occurs, with the common feature of exposure to humid winds that blow from the ocean.

Pantanal, which occupies an area of 150,355 square kilometers and 1.76% of the country and consists mainly of savannah steppe mainly flooded for part of the year.  The area is a flood plain influenced by rivers that drain the Upper Paraguay River Basin, where it develops a fauna and flora of rare beauty and abundance.

Pampa or Pampas which is known as Southern Fields or Southern Plains covers an area of 176,496 square kilometers representing 2.07% of the country and consists mainly of grassland in the state of Rio Grande Do Sul, occupying 63% of that state.  The biome is characterized by great richness of herbaceous species and various types countryside.